Friday 29 June 2018

German Property Finance - LTVs are Decreasing "Only" Due to Price Increase


A recent finance study by IRE BS Immobilienakademie states that the Loan To VAlue ration in German property financing has decreased from 65% to 61% since 2016 but "only" because of price increases. In other words, banks  don't believe that current prices represent the value of the properties they are financing so they are cutting back on their exposure.

Why is this supposed to be good news? It follows the calls form the Deutsche Bundesbank about a Property Bubble even though several demand based indicators don't support the view. Maybe if they keep it up for another 5 to 10 years, one day, they will be right.

Press release in German.

Purchase the report in German.


Knight Frank Active Capital Report 2018: Canada and Germany Attract Further Real Estate Investment

Knight Frank Report: Active Capital - 2018.

Active Capital gives a unique insight into the dynamics of the real estate capital markets around the world. It projects that Canada and Germany have the greatest potential for increasing real estate investment from around the world.

Download the Report directly:


Wednesday 27 June 2018

Berlin Remains in the Top 5 of the Most Dynamic Cities in Europe

Savills Investment Management LLP has published their annual  "Savills IM Dynamic Cities Index" for Europe.
Europe stands among the most urbanised regions on the globe. Trends
in urbanisation are increasingly important for investors. However, not
all cities are equal. With the predicted growth of disruptive technology,
it is vital to identify locations that will show resilience to change. 
The Savills Investment Management Dynamic Cities
index incorporates cities’ longer-term upwards growth
potential rather than focus on the one- to two-year,
shorter-term real estate cycle.
Using 60 indicators across 6 subcategories, Savills
Investment Management has identified London,
Cambridge, Paris, Amsterdam and Berlin as the top
five European cities for real estate investment.
KIRAN PATEL Global Chief Investment Officer Savills Investment Management

London, Cambridge, Paris, Amsterdam and Berlin remain the five most dynamic cities in Europe, according to Savills Investment Management. They claim their position in the new edition of the "Savills IM Dynamic Cities Index", for which 130 European cities and city regions were evaluated according to the criteria of innovation, inspiration, inclusion, networking, investment and infrastructure. The index is led by cities that are successful in attracting and retaining talent, promoting innovation, and increasing productivity, which in turn drives prosperity and population growth and thus has a positive impact on the commercial real estate markets. Most of the locations investigated achieved better results than in the previous year. In Germany, especially Frankfurt (+4 in 17th place) improved.

The full report is available at this link:
And an interactive presentation with visualisation of the the results and their components allowing direct comparison and search is available at this link:


Monday 25 June 2018

Eight Percent of Office Space Turnover in Berlin are Accounted For by Flexible Workspaces.

The average share of Workspace as a Service (WaaS) take-up in Europe reached 7.5% in Q1 2018,
up from 7.2% in 2017 and almost three times higher compared to 2016, corresponding to a total volume of 680,000 m² according to Savills.
“The effect of 'on-demand' economy on the office sector, is bringing the expectation for higher flexibility, shorter leases and personalised services.” 
Eri Mitsostergiou, Savills European Research

Briefing note Workspace as a Service (WaaS) Trend or necessity?

The largest market over the past five quarters was London (217,000 m²), followed by Paris (126,000 m²) and Berlin (81,000 m²).

Eight percent of space turnover in Berlin are accounted for by Flexible Workspaces.


Friday 22 June 2018

Changes on Share Deal Regulations To Make Them Less Attractive

The controversial methods used by property companies to avoid property sales tax (stamp duty) have been a thorn in the side of the tax authorities in the German states as they are the recipients of the revenue from this tax. The current federal government has picked up the issue as it is regulated by federal law and was agreed as an action item in the coalition agreement. The finance ministers of the states (Bundesländer) have passed a reform model for the regulations for Share Deals in their last joint session on Thursday. Any change in this taxation has to be agreed on by both levels of government.

In the Share Deal model the parties involved use a loophole in the tax code selling shares in a property instead of the entire property. If the amount of shares sold is below 95% there is no property sales tax because in theory the property remains with the company owning it and the company has not fully changed ownership.

  • In the new model this quota is to be reduced to 90% in order to avoid property sales tax.

Another condition is, that the owner of  the remaining 5% plus, 10% plus in the new model,  has to remain in the company for a minimum of 5 years to avoid taxation.

  • In the new model the minimum holding time is planned to be extended to 10 years.

As the tax rates vary between 3.5% and 6.5% (overview of the states) of the purchase price in different states it poses the question if these changes are enough of a deterrent to not try to avoid this tax. The total amount lost to the states through this model is estimated at ca. 1 Billion Euro annually.

Stay tuned for updates.


Tuesday 19 June 2018

Cash in The Attic - Rooftop Developments in Berlin

The Urban Land Institute Leader Summit 2018 in Frankfurt in May touched on the subject of repurposing roof space in Berlin. Be it your classic attic rooftop development or installing completely new units on top of existing buildings:

In Brief: Repurposing Rooftop Space as Values Climb in Berlin
With property in high demand in Berlin—it had the largest year-over-year real estate price increase of any city in the world last year—it makes more sense than ever to look up for new opportunities. A number of developers have found success (or are hoping for a top return) from add-on projects atop existing structures in Germany’s capital.
For the full article and video:

This is especially interesting in "Mileuschutz" protected areas as there are no "luxury" limitations for the new apartments and the rent is not limited. You just cannot integrate existing apartments into the development. For more information on "Milieuschutz" see The Can Do and Can't Do Renovating Apartments in Certain Areas of Berlin in this blog.


Thursday 14 June 2018

IBB Housing Market Report 2017 for the Berlin and Greater Berlin region

The annual IBB Housing Market Report has a different angle at the market situation than the commercial reports produced by big property agents and banks. Here is how they characterise themselves:
"IBB is the business development bank of the Federal Land of Berlin. With its business support, it actively contributes towards developing Berlin as a hub for business and industry. Our staff working in housing and real estate promotion are the people to contact for all issues related to real-estate financing."
Their viewpoint is policy based and not biased to talking prices up for business purposes (also available in this blog). The main report is in German and a volume of 121 pages with very detailed data and information. There is an 8 page summary available with all key findings of the report addressing these topics:

Selected Data at a glance

  • Economic factors
  • Housing demand
  • Housing supply
  • Rents and housing market
  • More detailed data available in the German version of the full report

General situation and important trends

  • Berlin’s economy – growth once again above the national average
  • Trend in demand
  • Trend in supply
  • Market for detached and semi-detached homes
  • Market for freehold apartments
  • Market for rented apartments
  • Key topic: The “Berlin and greater Berlin” housing market region



Monday 11 June 2018

Expiring Energy Certificate (Energieausweis) can be very costly, even when renting out or selling only one apartment

Renting or selling an apartment or apartment block requires the presentation of a valid Energy Certificate at the time of viewing. Even an ad for the rental or sale requires certain information contained in the certificate. Otherwise fines and / or libel suits could follow.
If your building in Germany was completed after October 1, 2007 it was required to have an up-to-date Energy Certificate. These certificates are valid for 10 years and start running out this year. If the building is dated before 1966, Energy Certificates were required since January 2009, running out next year.

Von Eigentum vom Autor - Eigener Energiepass - Autor Dirkes1,
CC BY-SA 3.0,

There is no requirement to renew the certificate if you are not re-renting or selling. Owners associations with owners predominantly using their apartments themselves will be reluctant to spend the money for a new certificate if they personally don’t need it.

An example: You are expecting to rent your apartment in January 2019 because you know it will become vacant. This year’s owners meeting did not have a new certificate on the agenda because the property manager was not paying attention to the issue, so there is not budget item for it. Even if it is considered “normal management” which does not even need a vote, it needs to be budgeted. So a discussion with the management company and the co-owners might be advised.

As there are different types of certificates we recommend professional consultation if in doubt.


Thursday 7 June 2018

Why Would I Divide My Apartment Block Into Separate Units, Condos?

Yesterday's post created many responses regarding the question: Why would or should I divide my property into separate units?

At the outset I would like to stress two big words: IT DEPENDS or as we like to say "How Long Is A Piece Of String".

List of possible reasons:

  • sharing out a property between investment partners wanting to go separate ways
  • sharing out a property between heirs wanting to go separate ways
  • selling off a property in single units at a higher price per m² in single units
  • increasing value for potential buyers
  • increasing LTV for mortgaging as banks like divided properties very much
  • ...

Areas of Concern

  • Many of the angles have tax implications totally destroying the intent, for international investors possibly a double taxation issue.
  • Is your property in an area where the division might be blocked by local authorities for fear of "gentrification" or is it already in a protected area.
  • What is your investment goal?
One of the key variables in deciding on a strategy for your property is the time horizon you have set for yourselves. If you are looking for the long game, blocked areas are still feasible for a division, as long as you don't plan to sell within the next 7 years. So one investor's concern is no problem to the next.

One item everybody shares in this process is the cost as it does not depend on the intent, this is what yesterday's post was about. Developing a strategy for your property or portfolio based on the intentions of the owner(s) and the individual properties is one of the specialties required. So the main question is:

How Long Is A Piece Of String?

Which summarizes strategy if not approached deliberately. Are you an investor wanting annual income from your investment or are you investing in value gain and see what happened after 10 years? Both strategies are valid but need different approaches.

If you are interested in a cost estimate for dividing a 20 apartment "average" building have a look at yesterdays post on this block.
If you want a cost estimate for your specific situation please contact an expert.


Tuesday 5 June 2018

How much does it cost to split my apartment block into condos?

Many owners of apartment buildings in Germany are contemplating a title split for their property. There are various reasons why property owners might want to divide a property into separate legal units and this is not limited to apartment buildings. However, the purpose of this article is to cast a light on the steps involved and their cost based on an “average” building in an average location.

Profile of our “average” building:

  • The rental area is 1,660 m².
  • There are 20 apartments.
  • The monthly rent is 6.00 €/m² resulting in an annual rent of 115,000 €.
  • The fair market value is 115,000 € annual rent x multiplier 25 = ca 2.9 MM €
  • The gross floor space is 2,000 m² (including ca. 17% construction and traffic area).

As-Built Measurements

The single largest cost is producing exact plans and measurements if not readily available. This will mostly be the case with pre-war buildings. The first step would be checking the archives, including the local council’s archives for building permits. If plans and measurements are not available there is no way of getting around having a surveyor take every measurement of the building and drawing up new plans. There are different cost models for this type of work; a widely used one refers to the actual measured gross floor space.

Photo by Lorenzo Cafaro from Pexels

In the case of our “average” building, this could be 6.00 €/m² gross floor space = 12,000 € plus VAT = 14,280 €.
As all apartments need to be accessed by the surveyor there is a great coordination requirement with the tenants by the property manager which he might well want to charge for but this is not included in this calculation.

The next cost items are incurred in any case, independent of the origin of the plans and measurements.

Plans and Certification

A set of plans including the land surveyor plan of the plot have to be prepared according to specifically defined requirements issued by the local council. The cost for the production and submission of the application for the certification of the partition plan (ger. Abgeschlossenheitsbescheinigung) will in our example be about 2,000 €.
The charges levied by the local council for issuing the certificate for the partition plan depends on the level of complication, for our “average” building I am estimating 10 € per unit = 2,000 €.

Declaration of Division

The declaration of division (ger.Teilungserklärung) is a notarized document based on the plans as certified by the local council which also includes statutes of the owners association. It refers in most parts to the code of the Wohnungseigentumsgesetz (WEG). An English translation of the code is available here:
The draft of the declaration of division should be done by an experienced lawyer/notary in conjunction with someone knowing the strategy for the property. e.g. planned rooftop development, expansion of an existing building or a separate new building on the plot, parking lot spaces, garages etc..

The fee scale for the notary (assuming he produces the draft) is based on the fair market value of the property, in the case of our “average” building it would be ca. 6,200 € incl. VAT and sundries.
The execution of the title split in the register is also value based and would be 2,450 € in our example case.

Project Management

I strongly suggest engaging a project manager experienced in this field to manage the process if you are not in the position to confidently deliver the task yourself. Poor concepts for the declaration of division can create big problems, are costly to rectify and in some cases irreparable once only one unit is sold to an external owner. ANY change to the Declaration of Division or the statutes needs 100% votes. A new co-owner might demand payments to agree to the changes. Even if changes can still be made, it will produce further, unnecessary cost.
In the case of our “average” building the project management cost is estimated at 3,800 € incl. VAT.

Cost Summary

Based on value incl. VAT and sundries
Based on value
As built measurements and plans
6 € per m² gross floor space
Producing split plans for the property register
Time fee and reproduction and submission of application at local authorities
Certified Partition Plan by local authorities
Ca. 100 € per unit, depending on the level of complication
Property Management for access coordination with tenants
Depends on contract and relationship with the property manager
Management of the project
Estimated 4 days at a daily rate 800.00 plus VAT
Estimated total cost
 With new measurements and plans


The cost of the conversion of your apartment block into a condo building is roughly 1 % of the value. This is not a formula for the estimation just the outcome for our “average” building but it provides an idea of scale to “plug in” your preliminary business plan. As mentioned at the outset, the motivation for the process and the timescale are central elements to the decision.
Further considerations
There are areas in big cities in Germany where title splits are blocked to prevent “gentrification”. However, this block can be avoided when the strategy for the property is long term. More information about the legal block: Please contact me if you are interested in long-term strategies as the level of detail would go far beyond this article.


Here are further terms describing the process of dividing a property into individual, legally tradeable independent units

  • declaration of division
  • declaration of apportionment and the apportionment plan
  • statement of partition
  • title split
  • Teilungserklärung (ger.)


Friday 1 June 2018

Leipzig is Planning to Identify 4 Areas for "Milieuschutz" - Gentrification Protection

The city of Leipzig is planning to identify four areas for protection restricting certain activities by landlords, like title split or luxury modernisation. The application of federal law  is called "Städtebauliches Erhaltungsgebiet" or "Milieuschutz". The consequences are described in detail in this article on this blog: The Can Do and Can't Do Renovating Apartments in Certain Areas of Berlin
It applies to Leipzig as well.

Von Frank Vincentz - Eigenes Werk, CC BY-SA 3.0,

For more background information in German: